Despite drastic reductions in injury rates over the last few decades, mining remains a hazardous industry. In 2019 there were 27 mining fatalities in the U.S. and more than 5,700 injuries. The median cost of each mining fatality from 2001 – 2013 was $1.42 million. Entrapment, explosion, falling, material handling, hand tools, haulage, hoisting, machinery are common causes of accident. One study shows that 57% of such accidents are caused by human error. Impairment testing can significantly reduce human error by giving employers early warning of impairment, regardless of cause.